Teaching reading is the integration of two complex systems

Schoolwide Model Graphic The two systems must be linked together, as depicted, in order for effective reading instruction to take place. One such link is the Schoolwide Reading Model.
  1. Symbolic System: the Alphabetic Writing System
  2. Organizational System: the complex host environments known as schools.

Schools as Host Environments

Improving the reading trajectories of at-risk students takes place in a complex "host environment" (Zins & Ponti, 1990, cited in Sugai, in press) of classrooms and schools that involves professionals, policies, programs, and practices that interact in complex ways.

"A program consisting of potent and validly conceived mechanisms and processes may not succeed because the host environments are not able to support those processes" (Zins & Ponti, 1990, cited in Sugai, in press).

The scope of the reading problem in America is clear. What is less well known is how to solve the problem. In this website, we offer alternatives to current practices in assessment, instruction, and administration that are based on reliable, validated research.

GOAL: All children reading by the end of third grade.

The Scope of Reading in the U.S.

Demographics and Societal Trends

The Persistence of Reading Difficulties

The Difficulty of Sustaining Effective Practices

Teaching Reading is the Integration of Two Complex Systems

Schoolwide Reading Model Logo
Schoolwide Beginning Reading Model