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Teaching Strategies and Examples: Oral Reading Fluency

Step 1: Is Fluency Building Appropriate?

  1. Examine student's performance on the oral reading fluency measure to determine whether accuracy is an appropriate target.
  2. Identify target goal (e.g., 60 wcpm by end of grade 1; 90 wcpm by end of grade 2).
  3. Review the following performance patterns.
    • Example A: 30 words attempted, 28 wcpm.
    • Example B: 27 words attempted, 20 wcpm.
    • Example C: 86 words attempted, 85 wcpm.

Step 2: How to Develop Oral Word Reading Fluency: Mediated Scaffolding and Review

  1. Identify passages students can read with 90-95% accuracy.
  2. Ensure that students can read 30-40 wcpm.
  3. Schedule repeated opportunities for the reader to hear and/or practice the passages.
  4. Aim to reduce the time and number of errors.
  5. Incorporate reading with expression once students can read 60 wcpm.
  6. Gradually shift from oral to silent reading.

Oral Reading Fluency Critical Components:

The majority of activities involve:

Repeated Readings Are:

  1. Not a replacement for beginning reading instruction.
  2. Not intended to constitute the reading curriculum.
  3. A short duration, frequently scheduled procedure to increase oral reading fluency.

(modified from Hasbrouck, 1998; see References)

Methods for Repeated Readings

  1. Fixed-time readings (1 minute) in which student reads the same text repeatedly (e.g., 3 times).
  2. Fixed-passage readings (e.g., 100 words) in which student calculates the time it takes to read the same 100 words on successive trials.
  3. Tape-recorded repeated readings.
  4. Peer review.
  5. Partner reading.

(modified from Hasbrouck, 1998; see References)

Sample Directions for Fixed-Time Repeated Reading

"Read this passage as quickly and carefully as you can. Try to remember as much of the passage as you can. If you get stuck on a word, skip it and I will help you when you finish. You will read for 1 minute. Get ready. Begin."

Guidelines for Pairing Students

It is not necessary for the higher ability readers to work with the students of greatest need. When pairing students, consider the following:

(modified from Hasbrouck, 1998; see References)

Guidelines for Partner Reading Activities

Set Ambitious Goals